Units must be in one of three formations at all times, a one element deep line, a one element wide column, or in a square. All troops can form a line or column, Heavy Foot can also form square.
A unit's last surviving element is always in line.
A unit of Light Foot in line is always assumed to be skirmishing.
In some cases of formation changes or movement, a unit will have to test its willingness to comply with an order by passing a morale test by throwing a certain score on a D6 die (plus any modifiers if applicable). If it is out of command range it will have to test in most, if not all cases, depending on troop type.
Elements must remain in edge and corner contact with another of their unit and face in the same direction, or two corners if in square (back-to-back if only two elements of the unit remain). A unit that changes formation cannot also move in the same turn.
When changing from column to line, rear elements are placed alongside the leading element, which cannot be moved, or turned, therefore the new line will face in exactly the same direction the column originally faced. Elements in a column may also turn exactly 90 degrees to form a line.
When changing from line to column facing the same direction, one element is chosen to remain stationary, the others may only be moved directly in front of it to form the column. This formation change is not possible if the unit would end in HTH combat. A line may also turn exactly 90 degrees to either side to form a column, i.e. an element at the end of the line is pivoted 90 degrees with the rear elements being moved up behind this 'leading' element to maintain contact.
A column following a road or wheeling sharply may 'flex its tail' but must maintain unit contact.

Infantry in Line, Column and Square formation. Each unit is formed from four elements. They are 'Heavy Infantry' so each element has three figures on it.
Light Infantry in Column and Skirmishers in Line formation. Each unit is formed from four elements. They are 'Light Infantry' so each element has two figures on it. When you put a Light Infantry unit into Line formation they become Skirmishers.
Cavalry in Line and Column formation. Each unit is formed from four elements. Each element has two figures on it.

Artillery in Line and Column formation. Each unit is formed from two elements. Each element contains one gun and crew. Artillery in column are 'Limbered' (i.e. attatched to a horse team for transport) to allow them to move faster on the battlefield. This is shown by turning the unit to face away from the enemy. Models could have their own horse teams if so desired.

If a unit tries to make a formation change or move type that is shown on the chart below, throw a D6 to test their willingness to comply with the order. If they fail they halt (except Cavalry minimum move).

Formation Changes and Special Command Tests
Troop Type
Score required to pass on a D6
5, 6
4, 5, 6

• All types to change formation when in HTH (if Heavy foot changing to Square only at first contact; if Skirmishers evading only at first contact).
• Turn 180 deg. (and also move up to half distance if not in HTH).
• To retire if Shaken (and have no General joined to the unit).
• To charge - Cavalry at steady square; All other legal charges get +1 to D6 if to enemies front; or, +2 if to enemies flank/rear, or a French column charging a line of foot.
• Cavalry making second and subsequent formation change without moving (only if using rule option).
• To halt Cavalry (only if using rule option).

Unless Skirmishers or Artillery, test if out of command range and try to:
• Make any formation change.
• Foot move towards enemy.
• Cavalry move towards enemy (unless using move option when they must move 4").
• Any to charge (without the additional plus modifier).

Note: If a unit fails it cannot move in the same turn (unless using the optional Cavalry 4" minimum move when the Cavalry unit will have to move at least 4", also when using the option Cavalry failing to charge a square must either move 4" ahead and around it and not charge others, or halt 4" away from it, depending on its initial position).